What is a Case Study?
A case study is a description of an actual management or leadership situation involving a
decision making process or a specific problem to be solved. It can be a real situation that actually
happened just as described, or portions have been disguised for reasons of privacy. Most case
studies are written in such a way that the reader takes the place of the manager whose
responsibility is to make decisions to help solve the problem. In almost all case studies, a
decision must be made, although that decision might be to leave the situation as it is and do
nothing. Whatever the course of action to be taken, a detailed explanation is always necessary.
The Case Method as a Learning Tool
The case method of analysis is a learning tool in which students and Instructors participate in
direct discussion of case studies, as opposed to the lecture method, where the Instructor speaks
and students listen and take notes. In the case method, students teach themselves, with the
Instructor being an active guide, rather than just a talking head delivering content. The focus is
on students learning through their joint, co-operative effort.
Assigned cases are first prepared by students, and this preparation forms the basis for class
discussion under the direction of the Instructor. Students learn, often unconsciously, how to
evaluate a problem, how to make decisions, and how to orally argue a point of view. Using this
method, they also learn how to think in terms of the problems faced by an administrator. In
courses that use the case method extensively, a significant part of the student’s evaluation may
rest with classroom participation in case discussions, with another substantial portion resting on
written case analyses. For these reasons, using the case method tends to be very intensive for
both students and Instructor.
Case studies are used extensively throughout most business programs at the university level. As
you will be using case studies in many of the courses over the next few years, it is important that
you get off to a good start by learning the proper way to approach and complete them.
How to do a Case Study
While there is no one definitive “Case Method” or approach, there are common steps that most
approaches recommend be followed in tackling a case study. It is inevitable that different
Instructors will tell you to do things differently; this is part of life and will also be part of
working for others. This variety is beneficial since it will show you different ways of
approaching decision making. What follows is intended to be a rather general approach, portions
of which have been taken from an excellent book entitled, Learning with Cases, by Erskine,
Leenders, & Mauffette-Leenders, published by the Richard Ivey School of Business, The
University of Western Ontario, 1997.
Beforehand (usually a week before), you will get:
1. the case study,
2. (often) some guiding questions that will need to be answered, and
3. (Sometimes) some reading assignments that have some relevance to the case subject.
Your work in completing the case can be divided up into three components:
1. what you do to prepare before the class discussion,
2. what takes place in the class discussion of the case, and
3. anything required after the class discussion has taken place.
For maximum effectiveness, it is essential that you do all three components. Here are the
subcomponents, in order. We will discuss them in more detail shortly.
1. Before the class discussion:
1. Read the reading assignments (if any)
2. Use the Short Cycle Process to familiarize yourself with the case.
3. Use the Long Cycle Process to analyze the case
4. Usually there will be group meetings to discuss your ideas.
5. Write up the case (if required)
2. In the class discussion:
1. Someone will start the discussion, usually at the prompting of the Instructor.
2. Listen carefully and take notes. Pay close attention to assumptions. Insist that they
are clearly stated.
3. Take part in the discussion. Your contribution is important, and is likely a part of
your evaluation for the course.
3. After the class discussion:
1. Review ASAP after the class. Note what the key concept was and how the case
fits into the course.
Preparing A Case Study
It helps to have a system when sitting down to prepare a case study as the amount of information
and issues to be resolved can initially seem quite overwhelming. The following is a good way to
Step 1: The Short Cycle Process
1. Quickly read the case. If it is a long case, at this stage you may want to read only the
first few and last paragraphs. You should then be able to
2. Answer the following questions:
1. Who is the decision maker in this case, and what is their position and
2. What appears to be the issue (of concern, problem, challenge, or opportunity) and
its significance for the organization?
3. Why has the issue arisen and why is the decision maker involved now?
4. When does the decision maker have to decide, resolve, act or dispose of the issue?
What is the urgency to the situation?
3. Take view at the Exhibits to see what numbers have been provided.
4. Review the case subtitles to see what areas are covered in more depth.
5. Review the case questions if they have been provided. This may give you some clues are
what the main issues are to be resolved.
You should now be familiar with what the case study is about, and are ready to begin the process
of analyzing it. You are not done yet! Many students mistakenly believe that this is all the
preparation needed for a class discussion of a case study. If this was the extent of your
preparation, your ability to contribute to the discussion would likely be limited to the first one
quarter of the class time allotted. You need to go further to prepare the case, using the next step.
One of the primary reasons for doing the short cycle process is to give you an indication of how
much work will need to be done to prepare the case study properly.
Step 2: The Long Cycle Process
At this point, the task consists of two parts:
1. A detailed reading of the case, and then
2. Analyzing the case.
When you are doing the detailed reading of the case study, look for the following sections:
1. Opening paragraph: introduces the situation.
2. Background information: industry, organization, products, history, competition,
financial information, and anything else of significance.
3. Specific (functional) area of interest: marketing, finance, operations, human resources,
4. The specific problem or decision(s) to be made.
5. Alternatives open to the decision maker, which may or may not be stated in the case.
6. Conclusion: sets up the task, any constraints or limitations, and the urgency of the
Most, but not all case studies will follow this format. The purpose here is to thoroughly
understand the situation and the decisions that will need to be made. Take your time, make notes,
and keep focused on your objectives.
Analyzing the case should take the following steps:
1. Defining the issue(s)
2. Analyzing the case data
3. Generating alternatives
4. Selecting decision criteria
5. Analyzing and evaluating alternatives
6. Selecting the preferred alternative
7. Developing an action/implementation plan
Defining the issue(s)/Problem Statement
The problem statement should be a clear, concise statement of exactly what needs to be
addressed. This is not easy to write! The work that you did in the short cycle process answered
the basic questions. Now it is time to decide what the main issues to be addressed are going to be
in much more detail. Asking yourself the following questions may help:
1. What appears to be the problem(s) here?
2. How do I know that this is a problem? Note that by asking this question, you will be
helping to differentiate the symptoms of the problem from the problem itself. Example:
while declining sales or unhappy employees are a problem to most companies, they are in
fact, symptoms of underlying problems which need to addressed.
3. What are the immediate issues that need to be addressed? This helps to differentiate
between issues that can be resolved within the context of the case, and those that are
bigger issues that needed to addressed at another time (preferably by someone else!).
4. Differentiate between importance and urgency for the issues identified. Some issues
may appear to be urgent, but upon closer examination are relatively unimportant, while
others may be far more important (relative to solving our problem) than urgent. You want
to deal with important issues in order of urgency to keep focused on your objective.
Important issues are those that have a significant effect on:
2. strategic direction of the company,
3. source of competitive advantage,
4. morale of the company’s employees, and/or
5. customer satisfaction.
The problem statement may be framed as a question, e.g.: What should Joe do? or How can Mr.
Smith improve market share? Usually the problem statement has to be re-written several times
during the analysis of a case, as you peel back the layers of symptoms or causation.
Analyzing Case Data
In analyzing the case data, you are trying to answer the following:
1. Why or how did these issues arise? You are trying to determine cause and effect for the
problems identified. You cannot solve a problem that you cannot determine the cause of!
It may be helpful to think of the organization in question as consisting of the following
1. resources, such as materials, equipment, or supplies, and
2. people who transform these resources using
3. processes, which creates something of greater value.
Now, where are the problems being caused within this framework, and why?
2. Who is affected most by this issues? You are trying to identify who are the relevant
stakeholders to the situation, and who will be affected by the decisions to be made.
3. What are the constraints and opportunities implicit to this situation? It is very rare that
resources are not a constraint, and allocations must be made on the assumption that not
enough will be available to please everyone.
4. What do the numbers tell you? You need to take a look at the numbers given in the
case study and make a judgment as to their relevance to the problem identified. Not all
numbers will be immediately useful or relevant, but you need to be careful not to
overlook anything. When deciding to analyze numbers, keep in mind why you are doing
it, and what you intend to do with the result. Use common sense and comparisons to
industry standards when making judgments as to the meaning of your answers to avoid
jumping to conclusions.
This section deals with different ways in which the problem can be resolved. Typically, there are
many (the joke is at least three), and being creative at this stage helps. Things to remember at this
1. Be realistic! While you might be able to find a dozen alternatives, keep in mind that they
should be realistic and fit within the constraints of the situation.
2. The alternatives should be mutually exclusive, that is, they cannot happen at the same
3. Not making a decision pending further investigation is not an acceptable decision for
any case study that you will analyze. A manager can always delay making a decision to
gather more information, which is not managing at all! The whole point to this exercise is
to learn how to make good decisions, and having imperfect information is normal for
most business decisions, not the exception.
4. Doing nothing as in not changing your strategy can be a viable alternative; provided it is
being recommended for the correct reasons, as will be discussed below.
5. Avoid the meat sandwich method of providing only two other clearly undesirable
alternatives to make one reasonable alternative look better by comparison. This will be
painfully obvious to the reader, and just shows laziness on your part in not being able to
come up with more than one decent alternative.
6. Keep in mind that any alternative chosen will need to be implemented at some point, and
if serious obstacles exist to successfully doing this, then you are the one who will look
bad for suggesting it.
Once the alternatives have been identified, a method of evaluating them and selecting the most
appropriate one needs to be used to arrive at a decision.
Key Decision Criteria
A very important concept to understand, they answer the question of how you are going to
decide which alternative is the best one to choose. Other than choosing randomly, we will always
employ some criteria in making any decision. Think about the last time that you make a purchase
decision for an article of clothing. Why did you choose the article that you did? The criteria that
you may have used could have been:
5. approval of friend/family
Note that any one of these criteria could appropriately finish the sentence; the brand/style that I
choose to purchase must…. These criteria are also how you will define or determine that a
successful purchase decision has been made. For a business situation, the key decision criteria
are those things that are important to the organization making the decision, and they will be used
to evaluate the suitability of each alternative recommended.
Key decision criteria should be:
1. Brief, preferably in point form, such as
1. improve (or at least maintain) profitability,
2. increase sales, market share, or return on investment,
3. maintain customer satisfaction, corporate image,
4. be consistent with the corporate mission or strategy,
5. within our present (or future) resources and capabilities,
6. within acceptable risk parameters,
7. ease or speed of implementation,
8. employee morale, safety, or turnover,
9. retain flexibility, and/or
10. minimize environmental impact.
2. Measurable, at least to the point of comparison, such as alternative A will improve
profitability more that alternative B.
3. Be related to your problem statement, and alternatives. If you find that you are talking
about something else, that is a sign of a missing alternative or key decision criteria, or a
poorly formed problem statement.
Students tend to find the concept of key decision criteria very confusing, so you will probably
find that you re-write them several times as you analyze the case. They are similar to constraints
or limitations, but are used to evaluate alternatives.
Evaluation of Alternatives
If you have done the above properly, this should be straightforward. You measure the
alternatives against each key decision criteria. Often you can set up a simple table with key
decision criteria as columns and alternatives as rows, and write this section based on the table.
Each alternative must be compared to each criteria and its suitability ranked in some way, such
as met/not met, or in relation to the other alternatives, such as better than, or highest. This will be
important to selecting an alternative. Another method that can be used is to list the advantages
and disadvantages (pros/cons) of each alternative, and then discussing the short and long term
implications of choosing each. Note that this implies that you have already predicted the most
likely outcome of each of the alternatives. Some students find it helpful to consider three
different levels of outcome, such as best, worst, and most likely, as another way of evaluating
You must have one! Business people are decision-makers; this is your opportunity to practice
making decisions. Give a justification for your decision (use the KDC’s). Check to make sure
that it is one (and only one) of your Alternatives and that it does resolve what you defined as the
Structure of the Written Report
Different Instructors will require different formats for case reports, but they should all have
roughly the same general content. For this course, the report should have the following sections
in this order:
1. Title page
2. Table of contents
3. Executive summary
4. Problem (Issue) statement
5. Data analysis
6. Key Decision Criteria
7. Alternatives analysis
9. Action and Implementation Plan
Notes on Written Reports:
Always remember that you will be judged by the quality of your work, which includes your
written work such as case study reports. Sloppy, dis-organized, poor quality work will say more
about you than you probably want said! To ensure the quality of your written work, keep the
following in mind when writing your report:
1. Proof-read your work! Not just on the screen while you write it, but the hard copy after
it is printed. Fix the errors before submitting.
2. Use spell checker to eliminate spelling errors
3. Use grammar checking to avoid common grammatical errors such as run on sentences.
4. Note that restating of case facts is not included in the format of the case report, nor is it
considered part of analysis. Anyone reading your report will be familiar with the case,
and you need only to mention facts that are relevant to (and support) your analysis or
recommendation as you need them.
5. If you are going to include exhibits (particularly numbers) in your report, you will need to
refer to them within the body of your report, not just tack them on at the end! This
reference should be in the form of supporting conclusions that you are making in your
analysis. The reader should not have to guess why particular exhibits have been included,
nor what they mean. If you do not plan to refer to them, then leave them out.
6. Write in a formal manner suitable for scholarly work, rather than a letter to a friend.
7. Common sense and logical thinking can do wonders for your evaluation!
8. You should expect that the computer lab’s printer will not be functioning in the twelve
hours prior to your deadline for submission. Plan for it!
9. Proof-read your work! Have someone else read it too! (particularly if English is not
your first language) This second
What is a Case Study?