Environmental Science – Disease Lab 4

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Disease Laboratory questions:

The Virgin Field – Part 1

1. (3 pts.) Are the results identical each time the simulation is run? How do the results compare to each other? What factors might contribute to susceptibility to the disease?

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The Virgin Field – Part 2

2. (2 pts.) What could be done to prevent the spread of disease in an area with a low population density?

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3. (2 pt.) How would a high population density complicate trying to prevent the spread of disease?

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Vaccination – Part 1

4. (2 pts.) Notice that influenza, unlike Kold, has a death rate. How many people die, on average, when you run the simulator on the virgin field? (Death toll is shown in the results above the graphic representation of the field.) Compared to Kold, are there more or fewer people who end up becoming immune after contracting the disease?

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5. (2 pts.) How does a death toll change with taking precautionary factors or preventative measures? What kinds of precautions might you take with influenza that you might not have taken with Kold?

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Vaccination – Part 2

6. (2 pts.) For the first set of parameters (Medium/Medium), how well does the vaccine reduce the number of sick days?

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7. (2 pts.) How large a percentage of the population would have to be immunized in order to bring the sick days per capita reliably below 0.1 per capita? (To answer this question, you will need to set the Vaccinated parameter to different percentages of the population being vaccinated and then run the simulation multiple times until the sick days per capita is consistently less than 0.1.).

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Vaccination – Part 3

8. (2 pt.) What is it about measles that requires a high vaccination rate to prevent deaths?

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9. (3 pt.) Despite recent improvements in health care access, there are still reports of measles and other disease outbreaks that would be greatly reduced or prevented if more children had been immunized as infants. In addition, there are still families that don’t have health insurance or the means to pay for vaccination. Would it be in the best interest of the overall population to require immunization or provide free immunization to those who cannot afford it? What are some counterarguments that discourage parents from having their children immunized?

Answer:

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