Dental Assisting

ORDER THE PAPER NOW!

Learning objectives

This unit is based on the unit of competency HLTDA410D Apply the principles of radiation biology and protection in dental practice. The core learning objectives and elements of this unit are to:

  1. Apply knowledge of ionising radiation to produce a dental radiograph
  2. Apply knowledge of radiation biology to protect client, operator and others from ionising radiation
  3. Determine image characteristics of a dental radiographic image to minimise the necessity for re-takes
  4. Minimise radiation by maintaining quality in processing

Additional information on the performance criteria, skills and knowledge to be taught and assessed in this unit can be reviewed via training.gov.au:

http://training.gov.au/Training/Details/HLTDA410D

Required readings

This workbook details relevant chapters of the textbook:

Frommer, Stabulas-Savage, H. (2011). Radiology for the Dental Professional. Mosby/Elsevier. [VitalSouce bookshelf version]. Retrieved from http://pageburstls.elsevier.com/books/978-0-323-06401-9/id/B9780323064019000194_f0035

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=ge0LBAAAQBAJ&pg=PR4&lpg=PR4&dq=Frommer,+Stabulas-Savage,+H.+(2011).+Radiology+for+the+Dental+Professional.+Mosby/Elsevier+online&source=bl&ots=sQ1gOw3lS0&sig=yIRIG-WwlFUQQeHBI4o72-lAwJ4&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjT-YHf3e_OAhWBMZQKHUCIDLgQ6AEILzAD#v=onepage&q=Frommer%2C%20Stabulas-Savage%2C%20H.%20(2011).%20Radiology%20for%20the%20Dental%20Professional.%20Mosby%2FElsevier%20online&f=false

Recommended readings

Radiation Protection in Dentistry: Code of Practice and Safety Guide

Available from http://www.arpansa.gov.au, link to PDF version.

http://www.arpansa.gov.au/pubs/rps/rps10.pdf

If this text is available to you, it is useful to review:

Section VI: Dental Radiography

Chapters 21-23 of textbook:

Phinney, D., & Halstead, J. (2013). Dental Assisting: A Comprehensive Approach (4 ed.). Boston: Cengage.

Note

“Most State Health Acts require operators of X-ray machines to hold a licence. This licence can only be obtained once you are registered with the Dental Board of Australia.
In Western Australia, registered dentists do not need a licence to operate X-ray equipment. However, the equipment and the premises where it is used, operated or stored must be registered.”

http://www.ada.org.au/essentialinfo.aspx
Workbook Exercises

Each section of the workbook contains exercises that must be completed for the relevant session. This unit is delivered in conjunction with ‘Radiology for the Dental Professional’ by Frommer Stabulas-Savage. You will have received details to access the eBook via email on your enrolment with Foundation Education- please make contact if any further assistance is required.

The exercises are structured to match the current topic and allow exploration and practice of each section. They will be indicated as follows:

Activity

You will be supplied direction to relevant readings from the textbook ‘Radiology for the Dental Professional’ and other web resources. Complete the following activities/exercises in conjunction with your reading.

List at least five properties of X–radiation as evidenced in dental radiographic procedures?

  1. What are the types of transformers used in the dental x-ray machine, and what is their function?
  2. Explain why exposure times are best expressed in impulses rather than in fractions of seconds?
  3. When taking a radiograph, what is the kilovolt ‘linked’ to and what else needs to be adjusted to maintain the film density?

5a. Why would a change to a positioning indicating device (PID) increase the incidence of collimator cutoff?

5b. Which tool could be used to help minimize this exposure error?

6.What factors determine the intensity of the x-ray beam? Explain your answer?

Additional Information – YouTube

1940 X-ray Physics Documentary By William D Coolidge

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I3s5HFQ2YME&feature=related

How X-ray works

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7vSH-dlM5U8&feature=related

How X-ray Cathode Tubes Work

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IRBKN4h7u80&playnext=1&list=PL5E11D545BE4661CD

Topic 2: Apply knowledge of radiation biology to protect client, operator and other from ionising radiation

Part A: Please read Chapter 5 of the textbook ‘Radiology for the Dental Professional’ by Frommer Stabulas-Savage.

Once you have read the above chapter from the textbook, please complete the following activities/exercises.

Questions:1. Explain the risk vs. benefit concept of biologic effect of ionizing radiation on human tissue.

2. What is the difference between direct or indirect effect? Which of the two is more prevalent?

3. What is the risk estimate when exposing dental radiographs for thyroid, skin and bone marrow?

Additional Research required http://www.arpansa.gov.au/ and http://www.arpansa.gov.au/pubs/rps/rps10.pdf (Code of Practice & Safety Guide) – Radiation Protection in Dentistry.

4. Explain the difference between the acute and chronic effects of radiation.5. What is the erythema dose for facial skin? Is this an important consideration in dental radiology?
   6. Explain what is a roentgen, a rad, and a rem?  What does exposure and dose mean?

 

7. Explain the difference between a localised dose and a total body dose.
Part B:      Implement radiation safety measures for the client, operator and others
  Please read Chapter 6 & 7 of the textbook ‘Radiology for the Dental Professional’ by Frommer Stabulas-Savage.Once you have read the above chapter from the textbook, please complete the following activities/exercises.
Questions:1. List six major ways to reduce x-ray dose for patient.

2. Why is the paralleling technique preferred over the bisecting technique in regard to patient dosage?

3. List the way the operator’s occupational dose can be kept to zero.

4. What are the sources of potential radiation exposure to the radiographer?

 

Part C:        Work in accordance with relevant WHS policy and procedures.
  Please read Chapter 9 of the textbook ‘Radiology for the Dental Professional’ by Frommer Stabulas-Savage.Once you have read the above chapter from the textbook, please complete the following activities/exercises.
  Questions:1. What guidelines/regulations cover dental settings?

2. What are the required barriers that dental personnel must wear while performing radiography procedures? Discuss the ALARA rule.

3. What constitutes adequate shielding in the dental office?  Are lead-lined walls always necessary?

Additional Research required http://www.arpansa.gov.au/ and http://www.arpansa.gov.au/pubs/rps/rps10.pdf (Code of Practice & Safety Guide) – Radiation Protection in Dentistry (refer to paragraph 4.2).

 

Topic 3: Determine image characteristics of a dental radiographic image to minimize the necessity for re-takes

Please read Chapter 3 of the textbook ‘Radiology for the Dental Professional’ by Frommer Stabulas-Savage.

Once you have read the above chapter from the textbook, please complete the following activities/exercises.

Questions: 1. What are the factors that influence image detail?

  1. All of the following tooth structures appear radiopaque except:
  1. Enamel
  2. Periodontal membrane
  3. Lamina dura
  4. Cementum
  5. Dentin
  1. What factors determine object contrast?
  2. What is the ultimate goal of dental radiography regardless of the type of imaging system used?
  3. What is ‘focal film’ distance’? What would the result be for a FFD of less than 8 inches?
  1. What is ‘focal film’ distance’? What would the result be for a FFD of less than 8 inches?

Additional Research required http://www.arpansa.gov.au/ and http://www.arpansa.gov.au/pubs/rps/rps10.pdf (Code of Practice & Safety Guide) – Radiation Protection in Dentistry (refer to paragraph 2.2).

YouTube

Dental Radiographic Anatomy

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=quqjYRIXm28&feature=related

Topic 4: Minimise radiation by maintaining quality in processing

Part A: Identify the contents of the film package and determine the use of each item

Please read Chapter 4 & 15 of the textbook ‘Radiology for the Dental Professional’ by Frommer Stabulas-Savage.

Once you have read the above chapter from the textbook, please complete the following activities/exercises.

   Part A: Maintain quality assurance for processing dental radiographic imagesFollow quality assurance processes for the use of radiographic chemicals in accordance with manufacturer specification

Maintain appropriate conditions for manual and automatic processing in accordance with manufacturer specification

Identify a range of processing errors and implement corrective measures to produce a diagnostic radiographs

  Please read pages Chapter 8 & 17 of the textbook ‘Radiology for the Dental Professional’ by Frommer Stabulas-Savage.Once you have read the above chapters from the textbook, please complete the following activities/exercises.
Questions:1. Discuss the importance of a quality assurance in the darkroom and with automatic processors.

2. What comprises the most critical part of the darkroom and automatic processors quality assurance program?

 

  3. List two ways to check the strength of the processing solution as a component of the quality assurance program and explain each method.4. Dark room and processing capability is needed in:

a. direct digital radiography

b. optical scanning digital radiography

c. storage phosphor radiography

b. indirect digital radiography

c. none of the above

5. Which is the correct order for manually processing radiographs?

a. rinse, develop, fix

b. develop, fix, wash, dry

c. develop, rinse, fix, wash, dry

d. fix, rinse, develop, wash, dry

e. none of the above are correct

  
6. Which of the following conditions will result in a radiograph that is too light?a.  The darkroom door is left opened during developing

b.  Processing solutions are too warm

c.  The safelight is inadequate

d.  The automatic processor has a day-light loader

e.  The developing solution is too weak

7.  A radiograph is clear after processing. This could result from any of the following except:

a. unexposed film

b. excessive washing

c. prolonged fixing

d. exposure to white light

e. the x-ray machine was not turned on

8.  Digital imaging for panoramic units:

a. is now available

b. cannot be done

c. is not yet available

d. increases the patient exposure

e. needs standard processing

Additional Research required http://www.arpansa.gov.au/ and http://www.arpansa.gov.au/pubs/rps/rps10.pdf (Code of Practice & Safety Guide) – Radiation Protection in Dentistry (refer to paragraph 5.5 & 5.6).

   9. Identify the error seen in the film below and detail what would be the corrective action to fix the error.10. What error produces the film seen below?  Detail what would be the corrective action to fix the error?

 

  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

11.  Why is it important to check with the referring dentist/specialist if you have any questions regarding the area requested to be radiographed?12.  What is meant by “selection criteria”?

Part B:  Please review Chapter 10 & 11 of the textbook ‘Radiology for the Dental Professional’ by Frommer Stabulas-Savage.

Once you have read the above chapters from the textbook, please complete the following activities/exercises.

Questions:

1. List some methods that might be used to introduce a child to the use of dental X-rays.

2. What is your role as a dental radiographer in patient management

 

Additional Research: YouTubePeriapical Radiography – Long Cone

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HtW1On-McJw&feature=relmfu

Periapical Radiography: Long Cone Paralleling Technique

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BWmqHb_Lc4c&feature=relmfu

Periapical Radiography – Short Cone Bisecting Technique

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TQZQCywto38&feature=relmfu

Digital Dental Xrays Delray Beach Dental x rays

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eprYE2JqYYQ&feature=related

Radiologia Panorâmica

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cdOgyrNUuSE&feature=related

ORDER THE PAPER NOW!