Define and contrast the terms “innovation” and “social innovation” and illustrate the latter with examples using case study material.


Commonly Used Task Words in Essays and Exams


Word                             Meaning

Analyse                                 Examine closely, look at underlying structures

Examine                                Something in terms of its parts and show how they are related to each other

Argue                                                 Present a case for and/or against something

Assess                                   Decide the value of … be specific about the basis for your evaluation

Compare                                Discuss two things in terms of their similarities and differences

Contrast                                 Discuss two things emphasising their differences

Criticise                                  Give a judgment about the value of something and support that judgement with evidence

Define                                    Make clear what is meant by … use a definition or definitions to explore the concept of …

Describe                                Present a detailed account of …

Discuss                                  Consider and offer some interpretation or evaluation of …. present and give a judgement on the value of the arguments for and against an issue

Enumerate                            Give an item-by-item account of …

Evaluate                                Attempt to form a judgement about, be specific about the basis for this judgement

Examine                                Inspect something in detail and investigate the implications

Explain                                  Make clear the details of …show the reason for, or underlying cause of, or the means by which something occurs

Illustrate                                 Offer an example or examples to: show how/that … make concrete the concept of …

Interpret                                 Make clear the meaning of something and its implications; be explicit about the framework in which you do this

Justify                                    Give reasons why certain decisions should be made, or certain conclusions reached

Outline                                   Go through and identify briefly the main features of something

Prove                                      Show by logical argument

Review                                   Report the chief facts about… offer a criticism of

Summarise                            Describe something concisely

Trace                                      Identify and describe the development or history of something from some point, or from its origin